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The Government of Ghana 

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The Government of Ghana was created as a parliamentary democracy, followed by alternating military and civilian governments in Ghana. In January 1993, military government gave way to the Fourth Republic after presidential and parliamentary elections in late 1992. The 1992 constitution divides powers among a president, parliament, cabinet, council of state, and an independent judiciary. The government is elected by universal suffrage.

 

Political parties became legal in mid-1992 after a ten-year hiatus. There are more than 20 registered political parties under the Fourth Republic. The two main parties are the National Democratic Congress and the New Patriotic Party. The National Democratic Congress is the successor organisation to Jerry John Rawlings’ Provisional National Defence Council which was in power from 1981 to 1992.

The New Patriotic Party, found in 1992, is the successor to the Gold Coast’s The Big Six independence achiever party United Gold Coast Convention (UGCC); the People’s National Convention, and the Convention People’s Party, successor to Kwame Nkrumah’s original party of the same name, which was the incumbent government of Ghana for 10 years from declaration of independence in 1957 to 1966, winning elections in 1956, 1960, and 1965.

The National Democratic Congress won the presidential and parliamentary elections in 1992, 1996, 2008 and 2012. The New Patriotic Party won the presidential and parliamentary elections in 2000, 2004, 2016 and 2020.

 

Foreign relations

Since independence, Ghana has been devoted to ideals of nonalignment and is a founding member of the non-aligned movement. Ghana favours international and regional political and economic co-operation, and is an active member of the United Nations and the African Union.

Many Ghanaian diplomats and politicians hold positions in international organisations. These include Ghanaian diplomat and former Secretary-General of the United Nations Kofi Annan, International Criminal Court Judge Akua Kuenyehia, former President Jerry John Rawlings and former President John Agyekum Kuffour who have both served as diplomats of the United Nations.

In September 2010, Ghana’s former President John Atta Mills visited China on an official visit. Mills and China’s former President Hu Jintao, marked the 50th anniversary of diplomatic ties between the two nations, at the Great Hall of the People on 20 September 2010. China reciprocated with a visit in November 2011, by the Vice-Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress of China, Zhou Tienong who visited Ghana and met with Ghana’s President John Dramani Mahama.

Judicial system

The legal system is based on the 1992 constitution, customary (traditional) law, and British common law. Court hierarchy consists of Supreme Court of Ghana (highest court), courts of appeal, and high courts of justice. Beneath these bodies are circuit, magisterial, and traditional courts. Extrajudicial institutions include public tribunals.[1] Since independence, courts are relatively independent; this independence continues under the Republic. Lower courts are being redefined and reorganised under the Republic.

 

Administrative divisions

There are sixteen administrative regions of the Republic of Ghana which are divided into 6 metropolitan assemblies; 55 Municipal assemblies; and 216 districts,[7] each with its own district assembly. Below districts are various types of councils, including 58 town or area councils; 108 zonal councils; and 626 area councils. Over 16,000 unit committees exist on the lowest level. Ghana has 275 electoral constituencies.

 

Ghana Parliament constituencies

This is a list of the 275 constituencies represented in the Parliament of the Republic of Ghana, as at the December 2016 general election. It had been increased from 260 at the previous election in December 2012 parliamentary election. Each constituency is represented by a single Member of Parliament (MP). There were 230 parliamentary constituencies previously.

1 Ahafo Region – 6 seats
2 Ashanti Region – 47 seats
3 Bono Region – 12 seats
4 Bono East Region – 11 seats
5 Central Region – 23 seats
6 Eastern Region – 33 seats
7 Greater Accra Region – 34 seats
8 North East Region – 6 seats
9 Northern Region – 18 seats
10 Oti Region – 8 seats
111 Savannah Region – 7 seats
12 Upper East Region – 15 seats
13 Upper West Region – 11 seats
14 Volta Region – 18 seats
15 Western Region – 17 seats
16 Western North Region – 9 seats

At the time Ghana became an independent country, there were 104 seats in parliament. This increased to 198 after 1965 when Ghana became a one party state. At the start of the Second Republic in 1969, the number of seats were increased to 140. This did not change further until the start of the Fourth republic when it was increased from 140 to 200. The number of seats was increased following the December 2000 elections.[3] After the 2000 population census, the number of districts were increased from 110 to 138. The Electoral Commission of Ghana did a demarcation exercise which increased the number of constituencies from 200 to 230. The total list of constituencies was increased to 275 prior to the 2012 Ghanaian general election. This was done by the Electoral Commission of Ghana after the final results of the 2010 population census became available. Following a referendum in December 2018, the number of administrative regions have also been increased from ten to sixteen.

 

Ahafo Region – 6 seats

The Ahafo Region is one of the two new regions carved out of the Brong-Ahafo Region. The Brong-Ahafo Region was split into three regions following the December 2018 referendum.

District Capital Constituency Comments
Asunafo North Municipal Goaso Asunafo North
Asunafo South Kukuom Asunafo South
Asutifi North Kenyasi Asutifi North
Asutifi South Hwidiem Asutifi South
Tano North Municipal Duayaw Nkwanta Tano North
Tano South Municipal Bechem Tano South

Ashanti Region – 47 seats

Districts of Ashanti

The number of constituencies in this region increased from 33 to 39 in 2004 and 48 in 2012 prior to the 2012 Ghanaian general election. Some new districts were created in 2008 affecting the location of some constituencies.

District Capital Constituency Comments
Adansi Asokwa Adansi Asokwa Adansi-Asokwa
Adansi North Fomena Fomena
Adansi South New Edubiase New Edubease
Afigya Kwabre North Boamang Afigya Kwabre North
Afigya Kwabre South Kodie Afigya Kwabre South
Ahafo Ano North Municipal Tepa Ahafo Ano North
Ahafo Ano South East Dwinyame / Adugyama Ahafo Ano South East Created 2012
Ahafo Ano South West Mankranso Ahafo Ano South West
Akrofuom Akrofuom Akrofuom Created 2004
Amansie Central Jacobu Odotobri
Amansie West Manso Nkwanta Manso Nkwanta
Amansie South Manso Adubia Manso Edubia Created 2012
Asante Akim Central Municipal Konongo Asante Akim Central
Asante Akim North Agogo Asante Akim North Created 2012
Asante Akim South Municipal Juaso Asante Akim South
Asokore Mampong Asokore Mampong Asawase Created 2004
Asokwa Municipal Asokwa Asokwa
Atwima Kwanwoma Twedie Atwima-Kwanwoma
Atwima Mponua Nyinahin Atwima Mponua
Atwima Nwabiagya Municipal Nkawie Atwima-Nwabiagya South
Atwima Nwabiagya North Barekese Atwima-Nwabiagya North Created 2012
Bekwai Municipal Bekwai Bekwai
Bosome Freho Asiwa Bosome-Freho
Bosomtwe Kuntanse Bosomtwe
Ejisu Municipal Ejisu Ejisu
Ejura Sekyedumase Municipal Ejura Ejura-Sekyedumase
Juaben Municipal Juaben Juaben Created 2012
Kumasi Metropolitan Kumasi Bantama
Manhyia North Created 2012
Manhyia South
Nhyiaeso Created 2004
Subin
Kwabre East Municipal Mamponteng Kwabre East
Kwadaso Municipal Kwadaso Kwadaso Created 2004
Mampong Municipal Mampong Mampong
Obuasi East Municipal Tutuka Obuasi East Created 2012
Obuasi Municipal Obuasi Obuasi West
Offinso Municipal Offinso Offinso South
Offinso North Akomadan Offinso North
Oforikrom Municipal Oforikrom Oforikrom
Old Tafo Municipal Old Tafo Old Tafo Created 2004
Sekyere Afram Plains Drobonso Sekyere Afram Plains Created 2012
Sekyere Central Nsuta Nsuta-Kwamang
Sekyere East Effiduase Afigya Sekyere East
Sekyere Kumawu Kumawu Kumawu
Sekyere South Agona Effiduase-Asokore
Suame Municipal Suame Suame Created 2004

Bono Region – 12 seats

Districts of Brong Ahafo

The Brong-Ahafo Region was split into three regions following the December 2018 referendum.

District Capital Constituency Comments
Banda Banda Ahenkro Banda Ahenkro Created 2012
Berekum East Municipal Berekum Berekum East
Berekum West Jinijini Berekum West Created 2012
Dormaa Central Municipal Dormaa Ahenkro Dormaa Central
Dormaa East District Wamfie Dormaa East
Dormaa West Nkrankwanta Dormaa West Created 2012
Jaman North Sampa Jaman North Created 2004
Jaman South Municipal Drobo Jaman South
Sunyani Municipal Sunyani Sunyani East
Sunyani West Odumase Sunyani West
Tain Nsawkaw Tain Created 2004
Wenchi Municipal Wenchi Wenchi Created 2004

Bono East Region – 11 seats

The Bono East Region is one of the two new regions carved out of the Brong Ahafo Region. The Brong-Ahafo Region was split into three regions following the December 2018 referendum.

District Capital Constituency Comments
Atebubu-Amantin Municipal Atebubu Atebubu-Amantin Created 2004
Kintampo North Municipal Kintampo Kintampo North Created 2004
Kintampo South Jema Kintampo South
Nkoranza North Busunya Nkoranza North Created 2004
Nkoranza South Municipal Nkoranza Nkoranza South
Pru East Yeji Pru East Pru created 2004
Pru split 2012
Pru West Prang Pru West Created 2012
Sene East Kajaji Sene East Created 2012
Sene West Kwame Danso Sene West
Techiman Municipal Techiman Techiman South
Techiman North Tuobodom Techiman North

Central Region – 23 seats

Districts of Central Ghana

The number of constituencies in the region increased from 17 to 19 in 2004 and 23 in 2012 prior to the 2012 Ghanaian general election.

District Capital Constituency Comments
Abura Asebu Kwamankese Abura-Dunkwa Abura-Asebu-Kwamankese
Agona East Nsaba Agona East
Agona West Municipal Agona Swedru Agona West
Ajumako Enyan Essiam Ajumako Ajumako-Enyan-Essiam
Asikuma Odoben Brakwa Breman Asikuma Asikuma-Odoben-Brakwa
Assin Central Municipal Assin Foso Assin Central Created 2012
Assin North Assin Bereku Assin North
Assin South Nsuaem Kyekyewere Assin South
Awutu Senya East Municipal Kasoa Awutu-Senya East Created 2012
Awutu Senya West Awutu Breku Awutu-Senya West
Cape Coast Metropolitan Cape Coast Cape Coast North Created 2012
Cape Coast South
Effutu Municipal Winneba Effutu
Ekumfi Apam Ekumfi
Gomoa East Potsin Gomoa East
Gomoa Central Afransi Gomoa Central Created 2012
Gomoa West Esakyir Gomoa West
Komenda-Edina-Eguafo-Abirem Municipal Elmina Komenda-Edina-Eguafo-Abirem
Mfantsiman Municipal Saltpond Mfantseman
Twifo Atti Morkwa Twifo Praso Twifo-Atii Morkwaa
Twifo/Heman/Lower Denkyira Hemang Hemang Lower Denkyira Created 2004
Upper Denkyira East Municipal Dunkwa-on-Offin Upper Denkyira East Created 2004
Upper Denkyira West Diaso Upper Denkyira West Created 2004

Eastern Region – 33 seats

Districts of Eastern Ghana

The number of constituencies was increased from 26 to 28 in 2004 and 33 in 2012 prior to the 2012 Ghanaian general election.

District Capital Constituency Comments
Abuakwa North Municipal Kukurantumi Abuakwa North Created 2004
Abuakwa South Municipal Kibi Abuakwa South Created 2004
Achiase Achiase Achiase Created 2012
Akuapim North Municipal Akropong Akropong
Akuapim South Aburi Akwapim South Created 2012
Akyemansa Ofoase Ofoase-Ayirebi Created 2004
Asene Manso Akroso Manso Asene Akroso Manso Created 2012
Asuogyaman Atimpoku Asuogyaman
Atiwa East Anyinam Atiwa East Created 2012
Atiwa West Kwabeng Atiwa West
Ayensuano Coaltar Ayensuano
Birim Central Municipal Akim Oda Akim Oda
Birim North New Abirem Abirem
Birim South Akim Swedru Akim Swedru
Denkyembour Akwatia Akwatia
Fanteakwa North Begoro Fanteakwa North
Fanteakwa South Osino Fanteakwa South Created 2012
Kwaebibirem Municipal Kade Kade
Kwahu Afram Plains North Donkorkrom Afram Plains North
Kwahu Afram Plains South Tease, Ghana Afram Plains South
Kwahu East Abetifi Abetifi
Kwahu South Mpraeso Mpraeso
Kwahu West Municipal Nkawkaw Nkawkaw
Lower Manya Krobo Municipal Krobo Odumase Lower Manya
New Juaben North Municipal Effiduase New Juaben North
New Juaben South Municipal Koforidua New Juaben South
Nsawam Adoagyire Municipal Nsawam Nsawam Adoagyiri
Okere Adukrom Okere
Suhum Municipal Suhum Suhum
Upper Manya Krobo Asesewa Upper Manya
Upper West Akim Adeiso Upper West Akim
West Akim Municipal Asamankese Lower West Akim
Yilo Krobo Municipal Somanya Yilo Krobo

Greater Accra Region – 34 seats

Districts of Greater Accra

The number of constituencies increased/spread from 22 to 27 in 2004 and 34 prior to the 2012 Ghanaian general election.

District Capital Constituency Comments
Ablekuma Central Municipal Lartebiokorshie Ablekuma Central
Ablekuma North Municipal Darkuman Ablekuma North
Ablekuma West Municipal Dansoman Ablekuma West Created 2012
Accra Metropolitan Accra Ablekuma South
Odododiodio
Okaikwei Central Created 2012
Okaikwei South
Ada East Ada Foah Ada
Ada West Sege Sege Created 2004
Adenta Municipal Adenta Adenta Created 2004
Ashaiman Municipal Ashaiman Ashaiman
Ayawaso Central Municipal Kokomlemle Ayawaso Central
Ayawaso East Municipal Nima Ayawaso East
Ayawaso North Municipal Accra New Town Ayawaso North Created 2012
Ayawaso West Municipal Dzorwulu Ayawaso West
Ga Central Municipal Sowutuom Anyaa-Sowutuom Created 2012
Ga East Municipal Abokobi Dome-Kwabenya Created 2004
Ga North Municipal Amomole Trobu Created from Trobu-Amasaman 2012
Ga South Municipal Ngleshie Amanfro Bortianor-Ngleshie-Amanfrom Created 2012
Domeabra-Obom Created 2004
Ga West Municipal Amasaman Amasaman Trobu-Amasaman 2004
Split 2012
Korle Klottey Municipal Osu Korle Klottey
Kpone Katamanso Municipal Kpone Kpone-Katamanso
Krowor Municipal Nungua Krowor
La Dade Kotopon Municipal La Dade Kotopon
La Nkwantanang Madina Municipal Madina Abokobi-Madina Created 2004
Ledzokuku Municipal Teshie Ledzokuku
Ningo Prampram Prampram Ningo-Prampram
Okaikwei North Municipal Tesano Okaikwei North
Shai Osudoku Dodowa Shai-Osudoku
Tema Metropolitan Tema Tema Central Created 2012
Tema East
Tema West Municipal Tema Community 18 Tema West
Weija Gbawe Municipal Weija Weija Created 2004

North East Region – 6 seats

The North East Region was created following the December 2018 referendum.

District Capital Constituency Comments
Bunkpurugu Nyankpanduri Bunkpurugu Bunkpurugu
Chereponi Chereponi Chereponi
East Mamprusi Municipal Nalerigu Nalerigu
Mamprugu Moagduri Yagaba Yagaba-Kubori Created 2004
West Mamprusi Municipal Walewale Walewale Created 2004
Yunyoo-Nasuan Yunyoo Yunyoo Created 2012

Northern Region – 18 seats

Districts of Northern Ghana

The number of constituencies increased from 23 to 26 in 2004 and 31 in 2012 prior to the 2012 Ghanaian general election. After the division of the region into Northern and North Eastern regions, the region now had 18 constituencies.

District Capital Constituency Comments
Gushegu Municipal Gushegu Gushegu
Karaga Karaga Karaga Created 2004
Kpandai Kpandai Kpandai
Kumbungu Kumbungu Kumbungu
Mion Sanga Mion
Nanton Nanton Nanton
Nanumba North Municipal Bimbilla Bimbilla
Nanumba South Wulensi Wulensi
Saboba Saboba Saboba
Sagnarigu Municipal Sagnarigu Sagnarigu Created 2012
Savelugu Municipal Savelugu Savelugu
Tamale Metropolitan Tamale Tamale Central Created 2004
Tamale North Created 2004
Tamale South Created 2004
Tatale Sanguli Tatale Tatale-Sanguli Created 2012
Tolon Tolon Tolon
Yendi Municipal Yendi Yendi
Zabzugu Zabzugu Zabzugu

Oti Region – 8 seats

The Oti Region was created following the December 2018 referendum.

District Capital Constituency Comments
Biakoye Nkonya Ahenkro Biakoye
Jasikan Jasikan Buem
Kadjebi Kadjebi Akan
Krachi East Municipal Dambai Krachi East Created 2004
Krachi Nchumuru Chinderi Krachi Nchumuru Created 2012
Krachi West Kete Krachi Krachi West Krachi split in 2004
Nkwanta North Kpassa Nkwanta North Created 2004
Nkwanta South Municipal Nkwanta Nkwanta South Split from Nkwanta 2004

Savannah Region – 7 seats

The Savannah Region was created following the December 2018 referendum.

District Capital Constituency Comments
Bole Bole Bole
Central Gonja Buipe Yapei-Kusawgu
East Gonja Municipal Salaga Salaga South
North East Gonja Kpalbe Salaga North Created 2012
North Gonja Daboya Daboya-Mankarigu Created 2012
Sawla-Tuna-Kalba Sawla Sawla-Tuna-Kalba
West Gonja Municipal Damongo Damango

Upper East Region – 15 seats

Districts of Upper East Ghana

The number of constituencies increased from 12 to 13 in 2004 and 15 in 2012 prior to the 2012 Ghanaian general election.

District Capital Constituency Comments
Bawku Municipal Bawku Bawku Central
Bawku West Zebilla Zebilla Created 2004
Binduri Binduri Binduri
Bolgatanga East Zuarungu Bolgatanga East Created 2012
Bolgatanga Municipal Bolgatanga Bolgatanga Central
Bongo Bongo Bongo
Builsa North Municipal Sandema Builsa North
Builsa South Fumbisi Builsa South
Garu Garu Garu
Kassena Nankana Municipal Navrongo Navrongo Central
Kassena Nankana West Paga Chiana-Paga
Nabdam Nangodi Nabdam
Pusiga Pusiga Pusiga Created 2004
Talensi Tongo Talensi
Tempane Tempane Tempane Created 2012

Upper West Region – 11 seats

Districts of Upper West Ghana

The number of constituencies increased from 8 to 10 and 11 in 2012 prior to the 2012 Ghanaian general election.

District Capital Constituency Comments
Daffiama Bussie Issa Issa Daffiama Bussie Issa
Jirapa Municipal Jirapa Jirapa
Lambussie Karni Lambussie Lambussie
Lawra Municipal Lawra Lawra
Nadowli Kaleo Nadowli Nadowli Kaleo Created 2004 as Nadowli West
Nandom Municipal Nandom Nandom Created 2012
Sissala East Municipal Tumu Sissala East Split from Sissala 2004
Sissala West Gwollu Sissala West Split from Sissala 2004
Wa East Funsi Wa East
Wa Municipal Wa Wa Central
Wa West Wechiau Wa West Created 2004

Volta Region – 18 seats[

Districts of the Volta Region

The number of constituencies increased from 19 to 22 in 2004 and 26 in 2012 prior to the 2012 Ghanaian general election. This reduced to 18 after the December 2018 referendum which led to the creation of 6 new regions. The old Volta Region got split into Oti and Volta Regions.

District Capital Constituency Comments
Adaklu District Adaklu Waya Adaklu Created 2012
Afadzato South Ve Golokwati Afadjato South
Agotime Ziope Kpetoe Agotime-Ziope
Akatsi North Ave-Dakpa Akatsi North Created 2012
Akatsi South Akatsi Akatsi South
Anloga Anloga Anlo
Central Tongu Adidome Central Tongu Created 2004
Ho Municipal Ho Ho Central
Ho West Dzolokpuita Ho West
Hohoe Municipal Hohoe Hohoe
Keta Municipal Keta Keta
Ketu North Municipal Dzodze Ketu North
Ketu South Municipal Denu Ketu South
Kpando Municipal Kpando Kpando
North Dayi Anfoega North Dayi Created 2012
North Tongu Battor Dugame North Tongu
South Dayi Kpeve South Dayi
South Tongu Sogakope South Tongu

Western Region – 17 seats

Districts of Western Ghana

The number of constituencies increased from 19 to 22 in 2004 and 26 in 2012.

District Capital Constituency Comments
Ahanta West Municipal Agona Ahanta Ahanta West
Amenfi Central Manso Amenfi Central
Amenfi West Municipal Asankragua Amenfi West
Effia Kwesimintsim Municipal[9] Kwesimintsim Effia
Kwesimintsim[9] Created 2012
Ellembelle Nkroful Ellembelle
Jomoro Municipal Half Assini Jomoro
Mpohor Mpohor Mpohor Created 2012
Nzema East Municipal Axim Evalue Gwira Evalue-Gwira
Prestea-Huni Valley Municipal Prestea Prestea-Huni Valley
Sekondi Takoradi Metropolitan Sekondi-Takoradi Essikado-Ketan Created 2004
Sekondi
Takoradi
Shama Shama Shama
Tarkwa-Nsuaem Municipal Tarkwa Tarkwa-Nsuaem
Wassa Amenfi East Municipal Wassa-Akropong Amenfi East
Wassa East Daboase Wassa East

Western North Region – 9 seats

District Capital Constituency Comments
Aowin Municipal Enchi Aowin Created 2004
Bia East Adabokrom Bia East Created 2012
Bia West Essam Bia West
Bibiani Anhwiaso Bekwai Municipal Bibiani Bibiani-Anhwiaso-Bekwai
Bodi Bodi Bodi Created 2012
Juaboso Juaboso Juabeso
Sefwi Akontombra Sefwi Akontombra Sefwi-Akontombra Created 2004
Sefwi-Wiawso Municipal Wiawso Sefwi-Wiawso
Suaman Suaman Suaman

Source & Credit: Wikipedia

By: Mensah Francis – MyGhanaMedia.com

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